Fundamental, Applied, Action Research

1) Define the features of scientific method of research.
Scientific method of research is basic to any research. It implies that research follows a systematic and organised approach to conducting research. Data
collection is done to establish relations between variables and explain the cause and effect relation. It is further generalised to develop theories.

2) Explain the movement of research enquiry in the spiral of scientific method.
The Spiral of Scientific method is divided into four quadrants. The lowest point is called nadir where lies the problem to be solved. In the first quadrant, data collection
is done followed by classification, tabulation and analysis of data in the second quadrant. The cause- effect relations are established in the second quadrant and
hypotheses are drawn using inductive logic. In the third quadrant deductive logic is used to formulate laws. These laws are verified in the fourth quadrant and further
generalizations are done.

3) Define action research and the technique it employs
Action research is applied research done to immediately improve upon an existing situation. Mathematically stated, action research = action + research (knowledge
generated). It is useful for libraries where research needs to be done to improve upon the existing services for the benefit of users.

4) Define comparative research and its uses in society
Comparative research is a survey research comparing two entities, phenomena, or processes with a view two design and provides a new one having the best features of the two compared. In social life, it helps to create an understanding of
different viewpoints. Comparative religion is one of the examples that have helped to create an understanding and respect towards different religions.

5) Write brief notes on Diagnostic method of Research.
Diagnostic research is a problem solving study involving pinpointing the reasons for the problem and suggesting solutions for the same. The steps involved in it are:
1) Emergence and identification of the problem.
2) Diagnosis of its roots and causes.
3) Formulation of possible ways to treat the problem.
4) Suggesting a possible solution.

6) What are social surveys; how these can be applied to library studies?
Social surveys are descriptive cross- sectional studies done to know the present status of the different aspects of the society. These may cover sociological, economic, political, religious, anthropological, or attitudinal aspects. These may be done in libraries also to present, and evaluate the status of libraries. It may be with regard to the collection, services, staff, or users, etc.

Action Research : A type of practical and collaborative research to improve a method of practice.
Applied Research : Distinguished from basic or pure research, any research undertaken to solve immediate or practical problems.
Basic Research : Distinguished from applied research, any research undertaken purely for sake of knowledge without any immediate gain or use.
Comparative Research : A type of descriptive research to compare two or more similar entities to highlight similarities and differences. Ultimate utility may be to prepare a model with best features.
Data Processing : The act of collating, tabulating, classifying and drawing inferences from the gathered data.
Descriptive Research : A spatial survey of an entity or a family of entities to study the existing status and state-of-the art.
Diagnostic Research : A type of clinical method to investigate the root causes of a problem.
Exploratory Research : A rudimentary or preliminary work to study the viability of the research problem for its successful completion and useful results.
Nadir : The lowest point on the spiral of scientific method where the problem for research is identified and formally formulated.
Quadrant : One of the four equal sectors or areas into which the spiral of scientific method is divided. There are in all four quadrants produced by two intersecting lines drawn through the centre of the spiral. In each quardrant an important phase of research is completed.
Scientific Method : Any objective, transparent and repeatable method based on direct and systematic observation of phenomena to study cause-effect relation between two or more variables.
Social Research : Large scale social surveys from a large number of cases to discover the distribution and interrelationships of social and attitudinal variables.
Spiral of Scientific Method : A visual path of the research process through its various phases starting from data collection to formulation of theory.
Zenith : Highest point in the spiral of scientific method

Source:IGNOU Study Material