Presentation of Results

1) What are research reports? List their types
Research reports are detailed and accurate accounts of the conduct of disciplined studies accomplished to solve problems or to reveal new knowledge. Research reports include
1) Research degrees: M.Phil. P.hd. ,etc.
2) Research reports of projects funded/sponsored by research institutions and industries
3)Research reports which are in the nature of technical reports and
4) Research papers published by research journals.

2) What are the usefulness and significance of research reports?
The usefulness and significance of research reports are:
The pool of knowledge gets burgeoned with new inputs of value to the already existing knowledge. Numerous primary publications are a source of information and knowledge for the research community.
The secondary sources provide access to these primary documents and also make them available for consultation.
Citation indexes providing scope for citation studies gives a new method of evaluating research work of excellence.
Persons of eminence sprout in such conditions and provide leadership to research efforts in different disciplines, heading specialized research complexes.

3) What is a research proposal? State its components
A research proposal is a formal document with a letter of transmittal sent to a research funding agency, applying for financial and other aids for a research program.
Its components are: Letter of Transmittal, Title page, Executive Summary, Table of contents, Statement of Request, Introduction, Preliminary section, The body and methodology, Facilities, Personnel, Duration, Cost and Funding, Summary.

4) What is the function of plan outline of a research report? State its components
An plan outline of a research report is essentially a skeletal framework upon which a report is constructed from systematically collected and organized materials. A complete outline assists the writer in recognizing logical relationships between narrative elements of reports. Outlines are also useful for the construction of cohesive paragraphs and sections that are effectively connected.
The components include: Preliminaries, Introduction, Description of study, Collection of data and analysis, Results, Discussion, Summary, Glossary, References, Appendix, Index.

5) What are the three kinds of notes taken for research work? State the format of notes for subject files.
Bibliographical references, both directly related to the topic of research and additional references; Subject notes that get formulated as the research work Progresses; Quotations, Paraphrases, Summaries, Abstracts, Evaluative notes or remarks and such others.
The subject notes file may have the following format:
Subject Heading
Chapter reference
Topical statement(s); Descriptive subject heading
Document Reference, if any
Date/Time of occurrence of ideas
Names of persons consulted
Any other important reference

6) What constitutes good writing? How is it cultivated?
Good writing is a communication process, keeping the target audience in mind. It should be lucid, simple, logical and organized to help understanding the contents by those for whom it is written. Good writing stems from extensive reading of the works of outstanding authors. Extensive reading over a range of topics for breadth of background and intensive reading on selected themes for analytical, evaluative purposes are desirable for research students. Reading should be much wider than reading professional literature. While research reports are not classed as creative
writing, yet they are results of creative work and therefore should also reflect the effects of creative writing.

7) What aspects of language would ensure quality writing? Explain Syntactics.
The aspects that contribute to good writing are Style, Diction, Semantics, Syntactics, Rules of Grammar. Syntactics deals with the pattern of structure of the word order in a sentence or phrase to convey ideas effectively. While diction pertains choice of appropriate words and phrases, the syntax fixes the chosen words and phrases in a meaningful order in a sentence. This skill again comes through reading and writing

8) What are the aids that help drafting a research draft?
The aids that help drafting are the two types of drafting outlines viz. sentence outline or topical outline may help in the presentation of the theme(s) of the research report, pertaining to any section i.e. from Introduction to Interpretation, Discussion and Summary. The sentence outline consists of statements that can be expanded in each section of the report. The topical outline, on the other hand, is a list of topics and sub-topics that are covered in the report.

9) State the two steps of physical production
The two steps involved in the final production of a research report are:
1) Preparation of the Manuscript, and 2) the physical production including printing.

10) What are the four operations involved in the final production of a research report?
This involves four operations involved in the final stage of production of a research report are:
• Composing the matter
• Page layout of the composed matter
• Production of the final document
• Binding and Final finish

Creative Writing : Original writing with a flair for writing, induced by intuition and ability to imagine events dramatically.
Desktop Publishing : Publication using computer software packages to manage or create data to be printed, as well as that used to make up the pages of a final document. Word processors, spreadsheets
and database packages are, therefore, an essential part of DTP. As most routine publications can be produced literally on the top of a desk using a computer, it is known as desktop publishing.
Peers : Persons who are equal or above to another in position, abilities, qualification and experience.
Target Readers : Readers for whom a particular writing is meant.

Source:IGNOU Study Material