Users of Information Services

1) State the various individual links in the information transmission chain. 
The various individual links in the information transmission chain are as follows:
i) Generators of information. (authors, writers, reseal hers)
ii) Publishers
iii) Librarians
iv) Information specialists and
v) Users

2) List the different types of facilitators of information transmission.   The different types of facilitators of information transmission are':
i) Libraries/Information centres
ii) Indexing and Abstracting services
iii) On-line database services
iv) Information analysis centres
v) Referral centres.

3) Describe the functions of an information analysis centre in five sentences. 
An information analysis centre (LAC) is defined as an organization which indexes, abstracts, translates, reviews, synthesizes, and evaluates information and/or data in clearly defined specialized fields. The key activities of IAC are collection, analysis, interpretation, synthesis, evaluation and repackaging of information to enable users to assimilate information or numerical data. IAC is the most efficient system for transferring to a user, authoritative and evaluated information in a convenient form.

4) Distinguish the functions of a referral centre from those of a library. State at least three distinctions. 

5) Distinguish between the objective and subjective aspects of a library system. 
All library systems have subjective and objective aspects. The library resources, the subject coverage they provide and the various dissemination techniques employed for their use are the objective aspects. The users' opinion about the adequacy and suitability of these resources, their willingness to use them, and their ability to use the services are the subjective aspects of these systems. The former are real, outward and external elements not governed by the behaviour of users, whereas the thoughts and feelings of users are the subjective aspects.

6) Distinguish between use and user studies. 
All investigations into the objective aspects such as library resources, coverage and techniques forming the components of total library support are known as use studies. On the other hand, all investigations into the subjective aspects like users' opinion on the library resources, their willingness to use them and their ability to use the library services are referred to as user studies.

7) Indicate what you understand by information behaviour and distinguish between verbal and actual behaviour. 
 Information behaviour means the way users seek information, the way they go about finding it and the way they use it. In short, information behaviour is the totality of users' information seeking habits. Users' information behaviour has two aspects: verbal and actual. Users' verbal behaviour is what they say, they like and what they do. Their actual behavior at the catalogue and other service points in the library may be altogether different. At such places, they may use the sources which they have never mentioned as their preferences.

8) How does citation analysis help in use studies?
Secondary analysis consists in examining the already existing records such as loan records, suggestion books and reference requests. Citation analysis is a more sophisticated technique of the secondary analysis. In this technique, citation provided by authors in his communication are analysed from different aspects and is very commonly, used for producing a ranked list of journal titles which helps librarian take several management decisions relating to acquisition, retention and selection of source material for developing information products. More importantly the technique helps the librarian to assess the extent of users' dependence on the local library.

9) List the eight types of information services Indicate if all libraries should provide all these types of services. 
The eight types of information services are :
a) Current Awareness Service (CAS)
b) Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Service
c) Indexing and Abstracting Services
d) Literature Searching Service
e) Reference Service
f) Translation Service
g) Document Delivery Service
h) Reprography Service
It is not necessary for all libraries to provide all these services. The types of services to be provided are dependent on the users' needs.

10) List the three different types of translation services that may be provided. 
The three types of translation services that may be provided are :
i) a complete literal translation of documents;
ii) a free translation of the major points of the documents;
iii) oral explanation of the contents of the documents.

1l) Explain document delivery service in five sentences. 
Document delivery service is defined as the provision of supplying documents by a library from its own or outside resources. This is usually done through interlibrary loan for books and other monographs. For journal articles, photocopies are usually supplied. This service is organized at local as well as national levels. This service can be successfully operated only with the cooperation of libraries within a country.

12) Describe reprography service in five lines. 
Reprography services include supply of photocopies of documents, using plain paper copiers when the original copies of documents can not be issued. Usually supply of photocopies is made for journal articles, conference papers, brief reports, etc., but this service is given only on an individual basis to avoid copyright violations.

Accelerate : To speed up.
Copyright : Exclusive right granted by law for a certain number of years to make and dispose copies of literary, musical or artistic work.
Information Transmission Chain :A linking chain that connects information from  its generation to its use.
In-House Service : A service organized ,by the establishment  for its employees and customers.
Routing : A regular method for circulating documents  within an organization.
Vendor : A person or agency that sells the products or  services.

Source: IGNOU Study Material